Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers “write once, run anywhere” (WORA) meaning that complied Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation. Java applications are typically compiled to byte code that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture.
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Java is a programming language and computing platform first released by Sun Microsystems in 1995. There are lots of applications and websites that will not work unless you have Java installed, and more are created every day. Java is fast, secure, and reliable. From laptops to datacentres, game consoles to scientific supercomputers, cell phones to the Internet, Java is everywhere!
Java uses an automatic garbage collector to manage memory in the object lifecycle. The programmer determines when objects are created, and the Java runtime is responsible for recovering the memory once objects are no longer in use. Once no references to an object remain, the unreachable memory becomes eligible to be freed automatically by the garbage collector. Something similar to a memory leak may still occur if a programmer’s code holds a reference to an object that is no longer needed, typically when objects that are no longer
needed are stored in containers that are still in use. If methods for a non-existent object are called, a “null pointer exception” is thrown.
One of the ideas behind Java’s automatic memory management model is that programmers can be spared the burden of having to perform manual memory management. In some languages, memory for the creation of objects is implicitly allocated on the stack or explicitly allocated and deallocated from the heap. In the latter case, the responsibility of managing memory resides with the programmer. If the program does not deallocate an object, a memory leak occurs. If the program attempts to access or deallocate memory that has already been deallocated, the result is undefined and difficult to predict, and the program is likely to become unstable or crash. This can be partially remedied by the use of smart pointers, but these add overhead and complexity. Note that garbage collection does not prevent “logical” memory leaks, i.e., those where the memory is still referenced but never used.
Garbage collection may happen at any time. Ideally, it will occur when a program is idle. It is guaranteed to be triggered if there is insufficient free memory on the heap to allocate a new object; this can cause a program to stall momentarily. Explicit memory management is not possible in Java.
Java does not support C/C++ style pointer arithmetic, where object addresses and unsigned integers (usually long integers) can be used interchangeably. This allows the garbage collector to relocate referenced objects and ensures type safety and security.
As in C++ and some other object-oriented languages, variables of Java’s primitive data types are either stored directly in fields (for objects) or on the stack (for methods) rather than on the heap, as is commonly true for non-primitive data types (but see escape analysis). This was a conscious decision by Java’s designers for performance reasons. Java contains multiple types of garbage collectors. By default, Hotspot uses the parallel scavenge garbage collector. However, there are also several other garbage collectors that can be used to manage the heap. For 90% of applications in Java, the Concurrent Mark-Sweep (CMS) garbage collector is sufficient. Oracle aims to replace CMS with the Garbage-First collector.
There were five primary goals in the creation of the Java language:
- It must be “simple, object-oriented, and familiar”.
- It must be “robust and secure”.
- It must be “architecture-neutral and portable”.
- It must execute with “high performance”.
- It must be “interpreted, threaded, and dynamic”.
A Java IDE (for Integrated Development Environment) is a software application which enables users to more easily write and debug Java programs. Many IDEsprovide features like syntax highlighting and code completion, which help the user to code more easily. Here we are using Eclipse software for Java Projects. Eclipse is a Free and Open Source IDE, plus a developer tool framework that can be extended for a particular development need. IBM was behind its development, and it replaced IBM VisualAge tool. The idea was to create a standard look and feel that can be extended via plugins. The extensibility distinguishes Eclipse from other IDEs. Eclipse was also meant to compete with Microsoft Visual Studio tools. Microsoft tools give a standard way of developing code in the Microsoft world. Eclipse gives a similar standard way of developing code in the Java world, with a big success so far. With the online error checking only, coding can be sped up by at least 50% (coding does not include programming).
Applications of Java:
- Desktop GUI Applications:Java provides GUI development through various means like Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT), Swing and JavaFX. While AWT contains a number of pre-constructed components such as menu, button, list, and numerous third-party components, Swing, a GUI widget toolkit, additionally provides certain advanced components like trees, tables, scroll panes, tabbed panel and lists. JavaFX, a set of graphics and media packages, provides Swing interoperability, 3D graphic features and self-contained deployment model which facilitates quick scripting of Java applets and applications.
- Mobile Applications:Java Platform, Micro Edition (Java ME or J2ME) is a cross-platform framework to build applications that run across all Java supported devices, including feature phones and smart phones. Further, applications for Android, one of the most popular mobile operating systems, are usually scripted in Java using the Android Software Development Kit (SDK) or other environments. We develop Java projects for android applications also.
- Embedded Systems:Embedded systems, ranging from tiny chips to specialized computers, are components of larger electromechanical systems performing dedicated tasks. Several devices, such as SIM cards, blue-ray disk players, utility meters and televisions, use embedded Java technologies. According to Oracle, 100% of Blu-ray Disc Players and 125 million TV devices employ Java.
- Web Applications:There are several web applications that can be developed by Java,these are also Java Projects. Java provides support for web applications through Servlets, Struts or JSPs. The easy programming and higher security offered by the programming language has allowed a large number of government applications for health, social security, education and insurance to be based on Java. Java also finds application in development of eCommerce web applications using open-source eCommerce platforms, such as Broadleaf.
- Web Servers and Application Servers:The Java ecosystem today contains multiple Java web servers and application servers. While Apache Tomcat, Simple, Jo!, Rimfaxe Web Server (RWS) and Project Jigsaw dominate the web server space, WebLogic, WebSphere, and Jboss EAP dominate commercial application server space.
- Enterprise Applications:Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE) is a popular platform that provides API and runtime environment for scripting and running enterprise software, including network applications and web-services. Oracle claims Java is running in 97% of enterprise computers. The higher performance guarantee and faster computing in Java has resulted in high frequency trading systems like Murex to be scripted in the language. It is also the backbone for a variety of banking applications which have Java running from front user end to back server end.
- Scientific Applications:Java is the choice of many software developers for writing applications involving scientific calculations and mathematical operations. These programs are generally considered to be fast and secure, have a higher degree of portability and low maintenance. Applications like MATLAB use Java both for interacting user interface and as part of the core system.